Jung, Y. S., Hwang, K., Scholes, F. H., Watkins, S. E., Kim, D. Y., & Vak, D. (2016). Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells. Scientific reports, 6.
Abstract- We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dualfeed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.
Barrows, A. T., Pearson, A. J., Kwak, C. K., Dunbar, A. D., Buckley, A. R., & Lidzey, D. G. (2014). Efficient planar heterojunction mixed-halide perovskite solar cells deposited via spray-deposition. Energy & Environmental Science,7(9), 2944-2950.
Abstract-We report the use of ultra-sonic spray-coating under ambient conditions as a deposition technique for the fabrication of planar heterojunction CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite solar cells. We make a first optimization of processing parameter space using this deposition technique, and explore the role of the temperature of the substrate during spray-casting, the volatility of the casting solvent and the post deposition anneal on determining the efficiency of the resultant solar cells. We find that maximum device efficiency is correlated with the creation of dense films having a surface coverage above 85%. When such films are incorporated into a solar cell device, power conversion efficiencies of up to 11% are realized. These results demonstrate that spray-coating can be used in the large-area, low-cost manufacture of high efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells.
Das, S., Yang, B., Gu, G., Joshi, P. C., Ivanov, I. N., Rouleau, C. M., ... & Xiao, K. (2015). High-performance flexible perovskite solar cells by using a combination of ultrasonic spray-coating and low thermal budget photonic curing. ACS Photonics, 2(6), 680-686.
Abstract- Realizing the commercialization of high-performance and robust perovskite solar cells urgently requires the development of economically scalable processing techniques. Here we report a high-throughput ultrasonic spray-coating (USC) process capable of fabricating perovskite film-based solar cells on glass substrates with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 13%. Perovskite films with high uniformity, crystallinity, and surface coverage are obtained in a single step. Moreover, we report USC processing on TiO2/ITO-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates to realize flexible perovskite solar cells with a PCE as high as 8.1% that are robust under mechanical stress. In this case, a photonic curing technique was used to achieve a highly conductive TiO2 layer on flexible PET substrates for the first time. The high device performance and reliability obtained by this combination of USC processing with optical curing appear very promising for roll-to-roll manufacturing of high-efficiency, flexible perovskite solar cells.
Keywords: perovskite solar cell; ultrasonic spray-coating; photonic curing technique
Lopatin, D., Baranov, O., Korzhova, E., Kozbaev, K., & Samarskiy, D. (2015, July). Perovskite solar cells: a comparison at ultrasonic spray and vacuum thermal deposition methods. In Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO), 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on (pp. 405-408). IEEE.
Abstract—Developed a method of deposition layers of a solar cell with a photoactive layer based on organometal perovskites using spray solutions and suspensions in ultrasonic, the average efficiency obtained from 9 to 11%. The method is compared with the vacuum thermal deposition perovskites, where efficiency is obtained about 12-13%. Also in this case, a reverse order of deposition, a metal substrate, then all of the layers and the transparent conductive layer of a composite of metal and nanowire of tin and indium oxides.
Bocher, L., Robert, R., Aguirre, M. H., Malo, S., Hébert, S., Maignan, A., & Weidenkaff, A. (2008). Thermoelectric and magnetic properties of perovskite-type manganate phases synthesised by ultrasonic spray combustion (USC).Solid State Sciences, 10(4), 496-501.
Abstract-Electron-doped manganate phases were synthesised by ultrasonic spray combustion (USC) to investigate the magnetic and transport properties related to their morphology. The nanocrystallite microstructure obtained from the USC synthesis is characterized by the presence of twinned domains coexisting with ordered crystalline material. Classical solid state reaction (SSR) methods were applied to compare their thermoelectric activities with the USC compounds. Magnetic properties and thermopower exhibit different features between USC and SSR phases at low temperatures. At high temperatures the USC compounds display higher power factor values compared to SSR phases due to low resistivity and large thermopower values.
Keywords: Thermoelectric; Perovskite; Manganates; Nanocrystallites